Copyediting service repairs errors or inconsistencies in punctuation, spelling, capitalization, usage (proper choice of word or phrase) and sentence structure (both whether it is grammatically correct and if it conveys the intended meaning, not always the same thing), with brief explanatory comments and suggestions for improving clarity and organization. Copyediting does not, usually, verify facts, assess the validity of an argument, or address elements such as style. It is primarily at the sentence level: if a detailed editorial analysis of the larger structure and meaning of the project is desired, see Shape & Substance Editing.

Shape & Substance Editing

This editorial service goes beyond copyediting at the sentence level, analyzing the whole document for organization, content, and rhetoric (the way an argument is formulated, that is). It reshapes the writing to ensure that paragraphs fit together logically, that there is neither too little nor too much information and that the writing is persuasive without being overbearing. Elements such as tone and style (technical vs. creative, e.g.) are tailored to the subject and intended audience, and grammatical consistency (verb tense, e.g.) throughout the document is confirmed.


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